Carolyn's Blog

Benefits Of Magnesium

Health benefits of magnesium include prevention of constipation, eclamptic seizures, and asthma. It keeps your nerves, muscles, and bones healthy. It also helps in protein synthesis and cellular metabolism. Magnesium is vital for sustaining a normal heartbeat and is used by doctors to treat irregularities in the heart rhythm.

Other health benefits include its positive impact on reducing osteoporosis, and maintenance of sugar level, as well as its favourable effects on diabetes, back pain, and various psychiatric disorders.

What is Magnesium?

Magnesium is an essential mineral required by our body for maintaining the overall health. It is one of those essential minerals that help in calcium absorption by the human body and plays an important role in the formation and strengthening of teeth and bones.

What is the importance of Magnesium?

Medical experts often highlight the importance of including adequate vitamin and mineral intake into our daily diet. Magnesium is required for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It is the fourth most prevalent mineral in the body and is partially responsible for countless aspects. Roughly 50% of our body’s total magnesium is stored in our bones, while the remaining part is predominantly found in the cells of body tissues and organs. Although the human body is very good at regulating a constant level of this essential mineral, only 1% of itis available in the blood.

Sources of Magnesium

Natural sources of magnesium include sea vegetables, leafy vegetables such as spinach, and whole grains that are usually major components of a person’s regular diet. Other vegetables that can be classified as a rich sourceof this mineral include tomatoes, beet greens, broad beans, lima beans, artichokes, sweet potatoes, buckwheat flour, pumpkin seeds, peanuts, wheat flour, oat bran, barley, cornmeal, and chocolate.

Also, you can consume dairy products such as milk and yogurt, as well as non-vegetarian food like fish. Whole wheat bread containing bran and germ has twice the magnesium content compared to white bread. Water also has a high magnesium content; hard water has more of it than soft water, although hard water is not good for the body, especially the kidneys.

Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency

The deficiency symptoms of magnesium include pain in the neck and back, anxiety, fatigue, migraine attacks, muscle weakness and spasms, loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, insomnia, abnormal heart rhythms, diarrhea, muscle twitching, and Raynaud’s spastic vessels.

When you are under stress, your body tends to quickly deplete its stores of magnesium. One very common symptom of itsdeficiency is chocolate cravings since chocolate is rich in this essential mineral. Its deficiency can be a major cause of diabetes, depression, and menopausal symptoms.

Health Benefits of Magnesium

Magnesium is needed to keep muscle and nerve functions normal and the heart beating rhythmically. It also helps support a healthy immune system and keeps bones strong. Itis important for regulating blood sugar levels, thereby promoting normal blood pressure. Italso supports energy metabolism, protein synthesis andhelps to treat cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes.

Relieves Constipation

Magnesium provides quick relief from constipation, and a high dose of its water-soluble supplements is known to bringreliefto even the most severely constipated state. The laxative property of this vitamin relaxes the intestinal muscles, thereby helping to establish a smoother rhythm while passing bowels. Italso has another property of absorbing water, which, in turn, softens the stool and helps it to pass easily.

Prevents Eclamptic Seizures

Magnesium is one of the vital elements to ensure a healthy pregnancy. Proper intake of its supplements during pregnancy is extremely beneficial for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and increasing the pain tolerance level, resulting in a smooth delivery and an optimization of blood pressure. Magnesium sulfate is the best treatment for preventing eclamptic seizures in expecting mothers who may have hypertension.

Treats Psychiatric Disorders

Magnesium is known totreat some of the psychiatric dysfunctions such as panic attacks, stress, anxiety, and undue agitation.

Prevents Asthma

Patients that suffer from chronic asthma may be able to normalize their breathing with the help of magnesium supplements that aid in relaxing the bronchial muscles and regulating breathing. Even wheezing and breathlessness can be relieved through the intravenous administration of this mineral.

Boosts Energy

Magnesium helps boost energy production in the body and it promotes the activation of enzymes to create cellular energy.

Keeps Bones Healthy

Magnesium is directly related to bone density, and subsequently, an inadequacy of this mineral in the body can be a cause of osteoporosis. Ithelps in the regulation of calcium levels in the body, along with vitamin D, copper, and zinc. It, along with calcium and vitamin D, should be taken throughout the developmental years and adulthood, since it lowers the chances of developing osteoporosis when you get older.

Relieves Cramps

Magnesium helps treat severe backaches by relaxing back muscles, kidney stress, and muscular tension. As mentioned earlier, italso helps in the body’s absorption of calcium, which may lead to faster healing of the bones. Cramps in the legs and general fatigue are traditional symptoms of itsdeficiency. Therefore, proper intake of itssupplements acts as a cure for chronic leg cramp problems.

Protects Heart Health

Magnesium protects the heart from irregular heartbeats and tenderly shieldsit from damage, particularly from muscle stress. Itactually calms the nerves, mediates digestive processes, and prevents problems like vomiting, cramps, indigestion, abdominal pain, flatulence, and constipation, all of which can put undue stress on your cardiovascular system. And its deficiency can result in lethal heart diseases. 

Controls Diabetes

Magnesium helps regulate the insulin reaction to blood sugar levels. Itssupplements are vital for people with diabetes as many of them suffer from its deficiency. Itaids in regulating blood sugar, thus promoting normal blood pressure. Hypertension is one of the major reasons for an impending heart attack, and it has been found that many people with high blood pressure also have a magnesium deficiency. A 2018 study in the Nutrients journal reveals that oral Magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance and improves blood glucose level indicators among people with type-2 diabetes.

Relieves Migraines

Migraine attacks badly affect many people, especially females. Magnesium supplements and liquids considerably reduce the severity of such attacks and also help in reducing the rate of their recurrence. 

Produces Collagen

Magnesium is important for producing proteins that are slowly transformed into collagen. Collagen is a naturally occurring protein found in fibrous tissues like tendons, ligaments and the skin. It is also present in the cornea, bones, the gut, cartilage, blood vessels, and intervertebral discs. The more collagen in the system, the stronger those areas of the body will become.

Promotes Mineral Absorption

Magnesium helps absorb vital vitamins and minerals like sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Mineral absorption usually occurs within the small intestine, which ensures the detoxification of many harmful toxins in our body. It also helps activate vitamin D stored in the body, which in its inactive form is of negligible use. 

Controls Bladder Functions

Magnesium intake provides relief from bladder problems, and issues like frequent urination.Urination problems can come from a variety of reasons such as nephritis, infections, or sometimes interstitial cystitis; however, balanced magnesium intake can bring great relief to these ailments.

Dosage & Side Effects

The importance of this mineral is still not widespread or common knowledge, so many people ignore the importance of its consumption in their diet. Most dietitians recommend 250-350 mg per day of its supplement for adults.

The side effects of magnesium are very rare, but it is important to cover them. Excess intake often leads to diarrhea, because it has a laxative quality. However, if you take it in the form of nutritional supplements, there are fewer chances of such side effects.

People with kidney disease or bleeding disorders should avoid taking magnesium supplements without consulting a doctor.

What is Iridology, indeed?

Ask an Iridologist and they will tell you that the practice of iridology has more to do with preventative measures rather than consequent treatments. The iris in the eye is used to look inside the body and measure its health.

The difference between a medical diagnosis and a holistic analysis is that a medical procedure merely gives a name to a set of symptoms or conditions that appear to exist and gives no information to offer as to the cause of this condition. Whereas a holistic analysis varies because it looks for the cause. As an Iridologist analyses the whole person through the eyes he/she can see the underlying conditions and the areas where the problem is situated.

Often used as a diagnostic tool by naturopaths, herbalists, nutritional therapists and homeopaths, iridology is not used to diagnose diseases. The basic principle of iridology is to treat the patient rather than treating the disease. It will help you identify any underlying imbalances in the body that may produce certain symptoms.

Iridology is considered useful in the detection of existing as well as inherent health risks. Approximately 300 nerves from various parts of the body connect to the optic nerve. Based on this fact, it is considered possible to conduct a systematic health analysis by studying the iris.

Apart from the colour of the eyes, there can be different colours dotted around, different colours have different meanings, some include:

White indicates areas in the body where inflammation is being battled.

Yellow-white indicates an ongoing struggle.

Orange colour is an indication of problems in retaining bodily nutrients.

Dark brown relates to liver function.

Black indicates a tissue that has expired while, red-brown signals depleted health.

Iris analysis offers information that is simply not available through conventional laboratory tests and interpretations of a patients symptoms. These may show that something is wrong but seldom reveal which organ is affected. Iridology does this effectively, efficiently and reliably without requiring exploratory surgery, tissue biopsies, injections of dyes or chemicals to make organs appear distinct on X-Ray, or other uncomfortable and expensive diagnostic aids. Iridology is painless, safe, non-invasive and above all accurate provided it is done by a competent, well-trained Iridologist.

This evidence-based system can tell you all manner of details about your genetic make-up, your constitution and even your personality traits. 

Simply put: painless, non-invasive method of diagnosing the constitutional strengths and weaknesses and literally, the condition of each and every organ inside your body.

How does Iridology work?

One of the questions we always get asked, and one of the questions we love to answer the most, is How can you tell by looking into the iris? How does it work? We love that you, our patients, care about the history and legacy of what you will get if you ask for an analysis and we genuinely love telling the stories.

The iris receives impressions from all over the body via the direct connection of the surface layers of the iris with the sympathetic nervous system ~ called the neuro-optic reflex.

Once these impressions are received, the iris then reveals the characteristics of the body tissues, the presences of acids, anemia and catarrh; hyper or hypo functionality of the endocrine glandular systems; along with determining conditions of the autonomic and central nervous systems in relationship to the organs.

For the full story behind iridology, how it all started, just ask one of us Iridologists if you see us in person or send us an email.

Newcomers to Iridology often expect to obtain diagnosis of illness in terms of Western or Orthodox Medicine, but that would be a misunderstanding of what Iridology is actually about. Iridology is a naturopathic tool and the information it gives comes in naturopathic terms.

Essential naturopathic information which a practitioner would be looking for includes:

•The level of tissue activity - Hyper or Hypo states.

•Distinction between Chronic-Acute-Normal.

•Areas of toxicity and the relative toxin concentrations.

•The weakness or compromised condition of the organs or systems.

•Whether healing is occuring or has occured.

•Presence or not of degeneration.

•Presence of emotional conditions.

•Presence of tissue acidity.

•Indicators of tissue nutritional/metabolic imbalance.

The longer the toxins have been in the tissues the longer the damage may take to repair, and therefore there could be occasions when the damage would be irreparable. The washing away of all the toxins through eleimination is just the beginning ofthe healing process. It may be hard enough to accomplish. After that the healing process must begin - to whatever extent healing of the tissue damage is possible.

The process of getting better from a bad chronic ailment should always be viewed in these two stages - getting rid of the toxins and then repairing the damage.

Without this basic concept the process of recovery is not fully possible. 

The colour of the iris can tell us a lot about the health of the individual. Apart from the base colour of the iris, there can be different colours dotted around, different colours have different meanings, some include:

White indicates areas in the body where inflammation is being battled.

Yellow-white indicates an ongoing struggle.
Orange colour is an indication of problems in retaining bodily nutrients.
Dark brown relates to liver function.

Black indicates a tissue that has expired while, red-brown signals depleted health.

The visual cortex in the back of the brain assembles the actual images we see. But a different, older part of the nervous system—the autonomic—manages the continuous tuning of pupil size (along with other involuntary functions such as heart rate and perspiration).

Specifically, it dictates the movement of the iris to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye, similar to a camera aperture. The iris is made of two types of muscle: a ring of sphincter muscles that encircle and constrict the pupil down to a couple of millimeters across to prevent too much light from entering; and a set of dilator muscles laid out like bicycle spokes that can expand the pupil up to eight millimeters—approximately the diameter of a chickpea—in low light.

Stimulation of the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic branch, known for triggering "fight or flight" responses when the body is under stress, induces pupil dilation. The idea behind this response is to get more light into your eyes so you can see any potential threats more clearly.

Whereas stimulation of the parasympathetic system, known for "rest and digest" functions, causes constriction. Inhibition of the latter system can therefore also cause dilation. The size of the pupils at any given time reflects the balance of these forces acting simultaneously.

Any sudden change of one pupil compared to the other one might be a cause of concern and should be investigated.

What do you know about Corneal Arcus?

Eyes are often considered the "window to the soul," but in eye care they are more commonly used as a window into the patient's overall health.
Eyes can change in many ways as you get older, but some of these changes can indicate other health issues you otherwise might not notice.
Systemic diseases like diabetes and conditions like high blood pressure can all be detected during a comprehensive eye exam, but what can corneal arcus tell you about your health?

Today, we're going to unpack this little grey outline of your cornea and look at what this condition is, how common it is, and what it could mean to your overall health.

What is Corneal Arcus?

Corneal arcus, otherwise known as ARCUS SENILIS for seniors or arcus juvenilis for those under 40, is typically an age-related condition that creates a deposit of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides in an "arc" on either the top or bottom side of the iris, inside the cornea. Over time, the arc can grow to encircle the entire iris, creating a white, grey, opaque "outline."

Corneal arcus can indicate a variety of different health concerns, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and atherosclerosis. This connection was discovered as early as 1852, when pathologist Rudolf Virchow suggested that there was a connection between corneal arcus and atherosclerosis.

This was a controversial topic of discussion for many years, but recent studies have shown that his hypothesis may be correct. However, despite the physical appearance it may have on the eye, corneal arcus should not affect vision.

How Does it Develop?

This condition usually develops with age and can be found in nearly 60% of individuals between 50 and 60 years of age, but that percentage climbs in patients 80 years old and older. This is likely because blood vessels in your eyes become more open with age and allow more cholesterol and other fats to leak into the cornea.
Corneal arcus is generally caused by lipid deposits developing on the cornea's edge, typically related to a slowdown in lipid metabolism as the patient grows older. However, if it develops in a patient younger than 40, it could implicate a more serious situation.

How Does it Affect Your Vision and Health?

If corneal arcus develops as a result of aging, it is usually not a cause for concern. However, in individuals younger than 40, corneal arcus could indicate higher than normal cholesterol or triglyceride levels. Higher cholesterol and triglyceride levels could indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

What Should You Do?

There is no cure for corneal arcus, as the condition itself isn't actually harmful to your eyes or eye health. However, if you notice a white, yellow, grey, or blue ring or outline forming around your iris, you should visit your optometrist for an eye exam. Your optometrist can help you determine if your symptoms are benign or if they indicate a larger issue developing. You may also be recommended to have your blood checked for abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglyceride. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes like diet and exercise.

My theory is that an individual who enjoys a diet including lots of cooking oils and fried foods has a higher risk of developing this corneal arcus. Too often, people enjoy a take away and fast foods for convenience.

Health Effects of Rancid Oil

Not all fats are extremely harmful that does not mean they are healthy either. Polyunsaturated fats reduce bad cholesterol levels thereby lowering the risk of a heart disease. But this holds true only when we consume a moderate amount and not in excess.
A big example of such a fat is olive oil that quickly becomes rancid. Rancid oils work on the cells of our body and weaken them. They deplete the body’s vitamin B and E resources, have harmful health effects and are known to be linked to the following:
Botulism and other digestive disorders
Alzheimer’s disease
Atherosclerosis/ coronary diseases
Accelerated aging
Degeneration of tissues
Weight gain
Damaging DNA

Choosing your Foods

Niacin (also known as vitamin B3) reduces the production of lipids by your liver. Niacin helps to convert nutrients into energy, create cholesterol and fats, create and repair DNA, and exert antioxidant effects. Foods high in niacin include: avocado, spirulina, bananas, green peas and a good source of niacin and a great option for people who eat fish but not meat: salmon, tuna, and anchovies. Otherwise found in beef liver, pork, poultry.
Some of the highest niacin nuts include: hemp seeds, chia seeds, sesame seeds, pine nut, almonds, flaxseeds, hazelnut, lotus seeds, pistachio and chestnut. Other niacin rich nuts are pecan, walnut, coconut cream, coconut, pili nut and brazil nut.

Complications and Risks

-Do not take medications that could help lower your lipid levels without your doctor's advice.
-Do not opt for tattooing the cornea to cover the grey opaque arc forming. 

What Is the Best Diet for Eye Health?

The best diet for eye health is the one that helps keep you healthy as well.

When you search the internet, you’re going to find lots of articles on the best food for your eyes, and they’re all different.
That’s because many studies show that many foods are good for the eyes. I'm going to do one better. I'm going to show you the best diet for your eye health based on the nutrients your eyes need.

That way, you can eat lots of healthy food and support your eyes and your body.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A, especially as pro-vitamin A beta-carotene, helps your eyes. Vitamin A, which animals produce by cleaving carotenoids, were first found in the carrot, which led to the belief that eating lots of carrots helped your eyes (that one’s true). Beta-carotene is found in all yellow and orange foods. Fortunately, carrots are easy and fun to eat. They’re loaded with pro-vitamin A, along with vitamin C and vitamin E, and can help prevent cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Fresh is best, especially if you’re getting all of the fibers in the pulp where much of the vitamin A is bound.


This is the popular antioxidant and phytonutrient found in wine, but that’s not the only place you can get it. Foods like blueberries, goji berries, raspberries, and any dark red or blue fruit or vegetable contain lots of resveratrol and similar compounds. Because of the high concentration of resveratrol, and anthocyanins, foods like blueberries help your overall eye health and wellness. Tufts University showed that cataracts and glaucoma might be reduced by consuming a serving of blueberries every day. Happily, blueberries are easy to toss into your juices, and they taste great.

Fish Oil

Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids protect your blood vessels, especially the tiny ones in your eyes. It aids in eye development and may help your child avoid glasses.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that’s found primarily in fruits and vegetables. It can help reduce cataracts and glaucoma, and some studies are even showing it might help prevent your eyesight from getting worse as you age. Fruits and vegetables are filled with vitamin C and are found in high concentrations in the juices you drink, but you may want to add a supplement with vitamin C to get in everything you need.

Fatty Oils

In a diet composed mostly of fruits and vegetables, getting enough fats is a little bit more challenging. However, if you snack on seeds and nuts, you’re sticking to your diet plan and getting in your healthy fats. Chia seeds and flax seeds are both packed with omega-3 fatty acids and a ton of antioxidants. Walnuts also have a lot of omega-3s and can give you an extra protein boost. Sunflower seeds are convenient for when you’re on-the-go, and they can be found almost anywhere you need a quick snack. Pumpkin seeds are especially helpful for men, especially for prostate health.


This vital nutrient is best known for helping to prevent macular degeneration. It is a xanthophyll, one of the carotenoids, a cousin of vitamin A. It’s found in high quantities in leafy green vegetables, such as spinach, collards, and kale, and in yellow carrots. Lutein’s primary role in your eyes is to filter out high-energy blue wavelengths, especially in the ultraviolet range. This helps maintain the integrity of your eyes and lets you see a wide range of colors.


This is the other xanthophyll carotenoid found within the eye. It is the dominant component of the central macula. Zeaxanthin helps filter out ultraviolet light that damages the underlying structures. It works together with lutein to protect the various structures and keep you seeing well. Studies have found that people who eat a lot of leafy greens that contain zeaxanthin and lutein have fewer problems with macular degeneration or cataracts.

I hope you can incorporate these into your diet for Eye Health.


There are various methods and techniques to analyse the iris.
I use them all for every single person as I start the analysis from scratch. I make sure I mention all of the parts of the eyes am I analysing as I have a duty of care and want to mention everything I know about the eyes I am studying.
I analyse the physical part of the iris but also the behaviours and emotions connected to the various areas as well as sclerology- the whites of the eyes.

10 Conditions That Iridology Can Detect


The presence of a ring around the iris can be indicative of high blood pressure evidenced by a slow metabolism. Hypertension can lead to a host of problems if not caught early and an experienced iridologist can help to identify it.


An overactive thyroid can frequently be deduced by eyes that appear to bulge slightly, something that an iridologist can detect and compare to a chart to identify related issues. This condition can cause symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, weight loss and trouble sleeping.

Liver damage 

A trained iridologist can identify liver damage from brown spots in the liver section of the iris. This can sometimes present symptomatically as emotional issues such as depression, and if caught at an early stage a treatment regime can in many cases prevent progression and further damage to this vital organ.

Gallbladder issues 

By examining the eye for signs of jaundice – a yellowing of the white of the eye – an iridologist can potentially detect gallbladder and bile duct issues which can ultimately affect liver function.


As the iris is broken down into different sections corresponding to particular body zones, iridologists can identify certain indicators of inflammation in those specific areas. Inflammation can be a precursor to many serious disorders, so it’s important that they are identified early.

Weakened immune system 

When white markings are present in the iris, an iridologist may interpret this as a weakened immune system. Immune-boosting regimens can be recommended as a way of strengthening the system so that the patient is not susceptible to illness.

Digestive issues 

Problems with the digestive system, particularly the stomach and intestines, can present themselves via discolourations around the pupil. The iridologist may be able to determine that there are underlying digestive causes to other seemingly unrelated health issues.

Allergic sensitivity 

Environmental and food allergies and sensitivities can often present themselves to the iridologist as blood vessels appearing in the whites of the eyes. By measuring this against other indicators in the iris, a trained iridologist can frequently determine the nature of the allergy or sensitivity and recommend remedial actions.

Lymphatic health 

Problems in the lymph system can usually be identified at certain junctures depending on their interaction with the lung and heart. As the system depends on lung function for the removal of toxins, this can, in turn, affect the respiratory system.

High cholesterol 

A white ring circling the iris can be indicative of both high cholesterol and arteriosclerosis, which can be symptomatic of a poor diet. Iridology is a non-invasive way of reading signals from the body to indicate where health concerns may lie. While it can’t necessarily diagnose diseases, it’s extremely useful for understanding which areas of the body the health practitioner should pay attention to and which parts may be at risk for the development of certain ailments.

The iris has two basic colours: blue & brown.

However, with the current diversity and intermarriage of races a genetic mix of colours has resulted. Of course, we still see the basic blue or brown iris but there are irises which we call "mixed" when it becomes obvious that in addition to the basic colour there is a strong genetic influence of another colour.

There are instances where it becomes very difficult to determine exactly which colour is the true basic colour. Also, drug settlements in the body can make the iris appear a colour which is different than its true and basic colour.

Colour variations and their tendencies in Iridology

Pure brown eye with pigments covering iris fibre structure. Related to the primary colour red and the physical aspect of health.


Pure brown eyes are difficult for Iridologists to read because a layer of pigment completely covers up the fibre structure of the eye. However, Iridologists have noted some general characteristics of brown-eyed people.

First, they appear to be pre-disposed to imbalances in blood composition and hence to blood disorders. It has been suggested that they have a possible inherent inability to store adequate supplies of minerals. They may especially have problems with calcium metabolism. Specific systems and organs to pay particular attention to are: The circulatory system (heart, blood, blood vessels), the organs that make blood (liver, spleen, bone marrow), the digestive system and the endocrine glands.

Common health problems experienced by brown-eyed people include anaemia, hardening of the arteries, all types of blood diseases, constriction and hardening of lymph tissue, possible reduced leukocytes in the blood, digestive troubles, mineral deficiencies and early breakdown of the endocrine glands.

Blue Iris (Lymphatic) solid blue or grey/blue color with no discolouration or psora (pigments). Related to the primary colour blue and the spiritual aspect of health. Strong tendency towards Western phlegmatic (water) constitution and Chinese water, metal constitutions.


This is the "pure" blue eye that is found in people's of European descent. It usually accompanies a classic phlegmatic disposition which means the person is prone to lymphatic disturbances and catarrh afflictions. This is probably due in part to the fact that people of European descent are frequently heavy consumers of dairy products.

Blue-eyed people are also thought to have a greater tendency to accumulate uric acid in their bodies and to have kidney troubles. The body systems and parts that these people have to pay particular attention to are the following: Mucus membrane areas (upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, villi of lungs, digestive tract and the urogenital tracts), lymphatic tissues (tonsils, appendix, spleen and lymph nodes) and membranes of the joints.

Health problems commonly found in people with the lymphatic constitution include the following: Sinus troubles, sore throats, tonsillitis, earaches, bronchitis, asthma, swollen lymph nodes, skin catarrh (eczema and dandruff), kidney weakness, arthritis and rheumatism.

Mixed Iris (German: Biliary) Discolourations or psora (drug spots) on top of a blue background (fibre structure is visible through colour). Related to the primary colour yellow and the mental aspect of health.


The blue/brown mix eye has been linked by Iridologists with a disposition to biliary or hepatic (liver) troubles. It is believed that the colourations on top of the blue eye are a sign of toxicity in the body due to digestive problems. When the pigmentation is concentrated around the centre of the eye, this is especially linked with digestive disturbances.

Problems with the liver and other digestive organs can lead to further imbalances in the glandular and circulatory systems. Body systems and organs to pay particular attention to are as follows: The digestive system (stomach, pancreas, gallbladder and especially the liver) and the intestinal tract. Common health problems Iridologists associate with this type are: Hypoglycemia, PMS, indigestion, gallstones, constipation, gas, toxicity of the digestive tract, anger and/or depression, difficulty getting to sleep followed by difficulty waking up in the morning, nausea, stiffness and achiness, headaches (especially migraines), food allergies, seasonal allergies and Candida.


Colours have strong meaning in this eye type:

Straw Yellow: Relates to the kidneys and suggests poor kidney function.

Neon Orange: Relates to the pancreas and suggests a tendency to blood sugar imbalances and problems with digesting (metabolising) carbohydrates.

Dirty Orange: May relate to either the pancreas or the gallbladder. Suggests some tendency as neon orange, but may also suggest gallbladder problems. Look for other signs of gallbladder problems (marks in gallbladder zone or fatty deposits in whites.)

Dark Brown: Related to liver function.

Reddish Brown: Suggests breakdown of the blood and a need to work with blood purification and building. Possible problems with liver, spleen and bone marrow.

Junk food triggers imbalances

Imbalances in your hormones are triggered by bad food.

🧁 🧀 🥖 🏭 ☕ 🍷 🤯 🛋️

If you eat sugar, you’ll produce more insulin, more estrogen, and more testosterone. Any type of flour and sugar can lead to these imbalances. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Dairy and gluten are often triggers for inflammation and hormonal imbalances. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Xenobiotics or environmental chemicals like pesticides in our food can act like powerful hormone disruptors and trigger our own hormones to go out of balance.⁣⁣ ⁣⁣

We know that sugar, caffeine, alcohol, stress, and lack of exercise all contribute to worse PMS and all hormonal imbalances – including menopause.⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ After removing the bad stuff, you will want to replace it with good stuff. ⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Eat a whole, real, unprocessed, organic, mostly plant-based diet with organic or sustainably raised animal products. When you focus on this type of diet, you minimize intake of xenoestrogens, hormones, and antibiotics.

Taking simple steps like choosing organic food and drinking filtered water can hugely impact hormone balance.⁣⁣ ⁣⁣ Getting good quality sleep every night and exercising regularly can help balance your hormones. Along with supplementing with Omega-3, vitamin D3, B vitamins, magnesium, and probiotics. ⁣

What is a PTERYGIUM?

A pterygium (meaning ‘wing-shaped’) is a raised, cream coloured growth usually on the nasal side of the white of the eye.

It sometimes is more transparent, or can be yellowish or reddish. Before the growth extends onto the cornea it's called a pingueculae. When it extends onto the cornea it's called a pterygium. Causes can be amongst the following: dry eye, prolonged exposure to U.V. rays and constant dust particles.

Although they can be removed surgically, the rate of recurrence is as high as 40%, and they tend to come back bigger and faster.

A pterygium is not dangerous and it is not a tumour nor cancer, but can become uncomfortable and causes astigmatism. The main problem is that they can eventually distort vision due to the fact that they can grow onto the cornea, and eventually even reaching the central part of the cornea blocking light from getting into the eye.

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, it is suspected that UVB light is a root cause of the damage. If you are out in the sun a lot, eye wear that blocks UVB light is highly recommended.

Also, look into your diet, a more balanced diet can sort other issues in the body too so add lots of vegetables to your diet.

 If interested in optics, read further: 👇

So why do we get pterygium nasally much more frequently than temporally?

Think of this: if UVB exposure is a risk factor, temporally incident sunlight can be reflected along the cornea which acts as a condensing lens to the nasal limbus where its intensity is increased 20 times compared to the incident light temporally. Pretty amazing optics! 👁 👁 👁

Personality by the shape of your eyes

The shape of your eyes can reveal more about your personality than you might think, and cultures all over the world seem to have looked into it.

I am very interested in eyes in general as you know and have been studying them, looking into them close up, for the last 30 years.

While to some people, eyes look like nothing more than colourful balls that allow them to see the world, to others, eyes truly reflect one’s soul. Below, I will list what the size, shape, colour, slant, and even distance between the eyes reveals about your personality.



If you have relatively large eyes, this means you have passion, receptiveness, openness, and creativity in your personality. You feel emotions very deeply, and go through life riding on the waves of your passion rather than looking at things through a more logical manner. You can sometimes trust people too easily, so make sure you size them up accordingly before giving your whole heart (and maybe life story) away. If you have small eyes, you look at the world through a more logical, analytical lens. You believe in focus, precision, accuracy, and logic. You have high intelligence, and people come to you for answers about complicated things all the time. You pay attention to details rather than the bigger picture. Although many people might regard you as cold, they don’t realise that you do have emotions; you just don’t let yourself become carried away by them.


If you have almond-shaped eyes, then you have a certain mystique and exotic flair. You have great compassion for others, and have the ability to remain calm in almost any situation. However, you can also let your wary nature keep you from doing fun things in life, so remember to sometimes take chances and not think about the details so much. You also are very observant, and have a balanced outlook on life. You have a warmth about you that just makes people want to get to know you.

Round eyes mark great creativity and imagination, and you often escape reality by going inside your mind. You tend to let your emotions run the show, and make decisions based upon them. You’re an idealist through and through, which makes others see you as impractical and moody. You also have a certain charm about you which attracts others to you, even if you can seem a bit blunt and tactless at times.


People with close-set eyes often follow traditions, and have a keen interest in history and cultures. Their values and upbringing mean a lot to them, and they have a hard time living in a world that often forgets about culture. They don’t do well with change, obviously, which can lead to chronic stress and anxiety. They like structure, discipline, and detail, and have incredible focus. They have a resistant nature as well, which makes it hard for them to go with the flow.

Wide-set eyes mean basically the opposite – you love to explore all that life has to offer, and let nothing hold you back. You know your past, but don’t let it define you. You have eyes that see a little too far, that take you to uncharted territory and allow you to see more of the world than most people. You hate routines and inflexibility, and often wander aimlessly just to have an adventure. You are spontaneous, innovative, and fearless.

If your eyes fall somewhere in the middle of these two categories, then you have a balanced approach to life.


Prominent eyes look as though they bulge out, and protrude from the eye socket. On the other hand, deep-set eyes have a more sunken appearance. People with prominent eyes have great sensitivity and a friendly nature, but they tend to worry a lot. They like to stick with a close group of friends and family, as their warm-hearted nature makes it easy for them to maintain close relationships. They tend to lean toward pessimism, although most people find them highly approachable and relatable.

People with deep-set eyes tend to hide much of themselves underneath the surface. They have a mysterious, brooding nature, and can seem intense and private. They love to observe their environment and often live inside their heads. They have a romantic streak, however, and will get to know you on a very deep level.


Upward slanting, or cat eyes, mean that you have great ambition and drive. You don’t let anyone stop you from accomplishing a goal, and you are very open-minded and well-rounded. People find you interesting, fun, and witty. You look for opportunities wherever you go, and love to keep getting ahead in life. Others might call you selfish and self-centered, but you just see it as doing the best possible for yourself. You have great optimism that allows you to reach your goals fairly easily. You don’t give up without a fight.

A downward slant obviously points to quite the opposite. These types of eyes mean that you might have a dependent nature, and like to stay close to loved ones, as you rely on them for many things. You have a timid nature as well, and people tend to take advantage of you. You also are pessimistic, which makes it hard for people to have fun around you sometimes. However, you care deeply about people, and keep friends for quite a long time.

Parents              and their possible                                                                                       Children

Eye Colour Variations & Inheritance

Eye colour is determined primarily by the concentration and distribution of melanin in the iris. Higher concentrations of melanin produce a darker eye colour (and the same is true for melanin in the skin).

Melanin is stored in the iris pigment epithelium, at the back of the iris. The concentration of melanin here is responsible for the large differences between brown, blue and green eye colours. The subtle differences in hue, which produce the a full and continuous spectrum of eye colours from black to pale blue, are influenced by the melanin content and structural density of the iris stroma (located at the front of the iris). These attributes of the stroma result in Rayleigh scattering of light, much like what happens when light travels through the atmosphere producing a blue sky, and are responsible for subtle variations in hue from person to person. Eye colour is an example of structural colour, and therefore will vary depending on the lighting conditions. This is especially true for paler coloured eyes.

Melanin is manufactured in the iris throughout our lives by melanocytes in the antereal layer of the iris stroma, and stored in specialised organelles called melanosomes. Melanin is inert and very resistant to chemical degradation, remaining in the melanosome for long periods of time. Because of this continual accumulation of melanin, eye colour can change during a person’s life. Most change occurs during the first year of life, with pale-eyes darkening with age. Paler eye colours (blue and green) produce less melanin but also have fewer melanosomes; both of which contribute to a lighter eye colour. Melanin production involves a lengthy biochemical chain of reactions inside the melanosome, beginning with the raw materials tyrosine, dopa and cysteine. The pathway can lead either to the production of eumelanin (black / brown) or pheomelanin pigments (red / yellow). As with many human traits, melanin production is influenced by a number of different genes. Each step of synthesis is catalysed by an enzyme, controlled by a gene. A mutation affecting any one of these enzymes will likely influence the resulting pigment, or may even prevent it’s production altogether. Combine this with the genes involved in determining the stromal characteristics, and it is no surprise that eye colour is a polygenic trait: influenced by mutations in many different genes.

Patterns of Inheritance

It is for this reason that eye colour inheritance does not always follow the simple patterns of mendelian genetics that the text book suggests. Broadly speaking, brown eyes are dominant over green, which are in-turn dominant over blue. But in reality it is far more complex than this. Nevertheless, eye colour is highly heritable (98%), indicating that it is almost entirely genetically controlled, and environmental influences have little effect. Three genes have been identified which together account for the majority of variation in human eye colour; OCA2, HERC2 and MATP. OCA2, also known as the Bey locus, on chromosome 15, is believed to be the main determinant of brown-blue eye colour variation. One mutation in this gene has been found to explain around 75% of the variation in human-eye colour. OCA2 encodes a melanosome membrane protein, believed to be integral to melanin production. Mutations in OCA2, and in its regulatory region, can result in paler eye-colour, by reducing the production of melanin in the melanocytes. Mutations in OCA2 are also associated with variation in freckles, mole counts, hair and skin tone; not surprisingly since these traits too are influenced by melanin production. Although OCA2 had previously been thought to be the most influential gene controlling eye colour, a neighbouring gene, HERC2, is now increasingly believed to be key. HERC2 encodes a regulatory protein which interacts with the promoter region of OCA2, and mutations in HERC2 result in reduced OCA2 expression. A recent study showed that one single nucleotide change in HERC2 explains 78% of brown-blue eye colour variation. Additionally, other mutations in HERC2 are strongly influential in brown-blue-green variation. One variant, composed of two closely linked nucleotide changes, is found in two main alleles; a dominant (G) brown allele and a recessive (A) blue-green allele. In one study, all brown-eyed participants were found to carry the G allele, and 98% of blue-eyed participants carried two copies of the A allele. Green colouration was not as well explained by variation at this locus, but still 85% of green-eyed people carried the recessive AA genotype. Mutations in HERC2 have a down-regulatory effect on the expression of OCA2, but they do not prevent its production entirely. Thus, some melanin is still produced, resulting in a paler eye colour, rather than a complete absence of melanin which causes albinism. Although OCA2 production appears to be key in controlling the majority of eye colour variation in humans, as many as 16 different genes may be involved in producing the full spectrum of eye colours that exist. One gene, LYST, which has been previously identified as a pigmentation gene in mice and cattle, appears to be important in influencing the subtler eye-colour variation. LYST is found on chromosome 1 and encodes the lysosomal trafficking regulator. Melanosomes are specialised lysosomes, and therefore LYST may influence eye colour through its effect on the transport of molecules through the melanosome membranes. Pigment rings, which distinguish different shades of green and hazel eyes, have recently been linked to a mutation near the membrane protein SLC24A4, on chromosome 14. Another gene, MATP is also believed to be involved in influencing the darkness of eye colour, and variants in SLC24A4, TYR and TYRP1 may also be involved. We still do not fully understand how these genes interact to produce eye colour.

The Global Distribution of Eye Colour

Paler eye colours, particularly blue eyes, are primarily found in Europe – being most common in Northern and Eastern Europe. Pale skin and eyes are believed to have originated in Europe, and the origin of one mutation in HERC2 has been dated to between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago in Romania. Eye colour diversity declines rapidly away from Europe. Green eyes are first known in Bronze age Siberia, and are the least common eye-colour, although interestingly they have been found to be more common in women than men. A huge diversity of eye colour has emerged in humans over a very short space of time. Some researchers believe that evolution this rapid could only have been caused by one thing: sex. This diversity evolved in cooler climates, where early humans would have been living a hunter-gather existence in tundra, conditions which may have lead to a shortage of men. With too much choice around, males would have been selected to find finer ways to distinguish good mates, and eye and hair-colour diversity may have resulted from this. Sexual selection can often be frequency-dependent, meaning that it pays to be rare. New mutations causing changes in eye or hair colour may have provided attractive new variation to choosy males, and lead to the rapid evolution of the huge diversity seen today. Variations in pigmentation levels would have been hugely disadvantageous in tropical conditions, but may have provided an adaptation to cooler climates; increasing vitamin D production by maximising the amount of UV absorbed from sunlight. Relaxation of the selection imposed by the cancerous effects of overexposure to sunlight during the move from tropical to temperate climates may have opened this variation up for sexual selection to act. As well as being potentially dangerous or beneficial because of their effect on skin cancer susceptibility and vitamin D production, pale eyes are also associated with a higher incidence of age-related mascular degeneration (ARMD), a loss of vision due to damage to the retina. It’s not all good news for the dark-eyed, though, one study found an increased risk of cataracts associated with brown eyes.

A Window into the Soul

Finally, the finer details of iris appearance, in particular the crypts (lines radiating out from the pupil, and contraction furrows (lines curving round the outer edge of the iris), may tell us something about personality. Both crypts and furrows are producted by the dilation of the pupil. One recent study showed a relationship between the density of crypts and furrows and a number of personality traits including warmheartedness, neurosis, empathy and impulsivity.

The genetics controlling iris variation are even less well understood than those responsible for colour variation. However, some studies have begun to elucidate genes that may be involved. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of the SEMA3A gene is associated with the present of crypts. SEMA3A encodes a protein that is involved in cell movement in both the iris and the brain. Mutations in this gene have previously been linked to schizoprenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Furrows have been found to be influenced by another mutation, known only as rs3739070, located near to the TRAF3IP1 gene on chromosome 2. Eye colour is a complex trait, influenced by several genes involved in melanin production in the iris. Genes influencing the production of one gene, OCA2, explain the majority of eye-colour variation, however many genes act together to produce the huge diversity of human eye colours. Eye colour diversity increased rapidly in Europe around 10,000 years ago, a change which may have been motivated by sexual selection. However, eye-colour is strongly linked to pigmentation in general, and variation in eye-colour can influence health in a number of ways, largely depending upon where you live. Whether the eyes truly are a window into the soul remains unclear, but our eyes may be giving away more than we think.

A visit to your local Optician could save more than the eyesight.
Here are few of the potential health issues that may be detected through the eye:


Millions of people worldwide have Type I and II diabetes and as many as one-third of these population is unaware that they have this condition. There are no obvious symptoms of Type II diabetes, so an early diagnosis is crucial to avoid long-term and sometimes fatal complications. One of the early signs of diabetes is the dramatic and unexpected changes to the prescription of one’s eye glasses. A blurred vision is usually caused by glucose seeping into the lens and changing its shape; thus, making it difficult to focus. In addition, weak blood vessels in the retina may indicate diabetic retinopathy, which can eventually lead to blindness. Crystal-like patches or splashes of blood commonly indicate diabetes.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. According to recent data, as young as age 12 are reported to have high blood pressure. This rate increases with each successive age group for both males and females. Approximately 25 percent of adults with high blood pressure are unaware that they have the condition. Common eye indications for high blood pressure include crossing in the blood vessels of the eye, where the artery has hardened and nipped the vein underneath.

Multiple Sclerosis

Alarmingly, western countries ranked on the top of the list among the countries that were surveyed. Common eye indications for multiple sclerosis include intermittent blurring or even blacking out of vision, as well as difficulty in focusing. Multiple sclerosis can cause inflammation of the optic nerve that creates a banana-shaped field defect just below the macula of the eye.

The Natural Way

Often patients book an Iridology Analysis because they have been experiencing health issues and even if the problems seemed to have been solved temporarily, these usually come back.

Iris analysis offers information that is simply not available through conventional laboratory tests and interpretations of a patients symptoms. These may show that something is wrong but seldom reveal which organ is affected. Iridology does this effectively, efficiently and reliably without requiring exploratory surgery, tissue biopsies, injections of dyes or chemicals to make organs appear distinct on X-Ray, or other uncomfortable and expensive diagnostic aids.

In order to practise preventive medicine, you have to consider the whole body, and also take into account psychological and external factors.

Conventional or Modern (allopathic) medicine is now beginning to consider preventive treatment, but its whole approach is based on curing or preventing a specific, isolated ailment in the short term.

Herbal medicine does not simply tell you to give up cigarettes or cut down on cholesterol. What herbal medicine gives is health and a long-term lifestyle awareness, all in one package. Its slow and thorough healing process gives rise to an understanding of how sickness originates in the patient’s mind and body, and its results are permanent. The principal difference between allopathic and natural medicine is that allopathic medicine aims to suppress symptoms with drugs, rather than help the body to use its own healing mechanisms to eliminate the toxins that caused the disease.

Natural medicine and its use of herbs strive to support, balance and gently persuade the body to do the healing for itself, so that next time it will actually perform its own repair functions. What stops a body from healing itself is the bad diet and living habits to which we are educated from birth and which mean the body is never healthy enough to deal with itself properly. Psychological factors may also contribute.

The other major difference between the two forms of medicine is that conventional treatment can appear to work miracles, producing instant cures, however temporarily. Natural healing requires more time and effort on the part of the patient - but the long-term results are well worth it!

Nonetheless natural methods frequently work considerably faster in healing time than many conventional treatments and can be a better option for this reason alone. It is not easy for people to give up the treatment they have been programmed since birth to accept silently and surrenderingly, and instead respond to their own instincts and body language. Fear and allied emotions can block the healing process, and it is hard for some people to accept that parochial-sounding remedy like lavender cream can be a better cure for acne and eczema than the steroid cream their GP prescribed.

As Dr J. R. Christopher used to say, “There are no incurable diseases, but at times there are incurable patients!” The herbs will get on and do their job quite happily, but only if the mind of the patient will let them. So many of the concepts of natural healing methods and the use of preventive medicine are foreign to our society. That is why there is a tremendous need for enlightenment, so that people are encouraged to adopt the philosophy into their daily lives.  There will be a lot of undoing to be done, but even if you reach an awkward grasp of living herbalism, perhaps your children will grow up to find it normal and natural. There are four categories which conspire towards ill-health: psychological, ecological, physiological and biological factors.

Much of today’s illness is simply due to wrong diet. The body produces warning signals in the form of acute illness, like constant colds, glandular swellings, poor circulation, etc. Conventionally, this illness is treated without considering its root cause. And so at some point the symptoms recur, resulting in a chronic illness, which is much more difficult to treat. Treating the disease when it is at its acute stage - catching it early - is much easier.

This often means bringing the crisis to a head, using herbs to make sure the body is fully rid of its toxins. If not, the toxins may well come flooding back , and although the illness may subside for a while it will recur again and again, until perhaps the ailment becomes so bad that it is “chronic” or general ill-health and debilitation push the body into a chronically ill condition. Treating acute ailments with "wonder drugs” merely pushes back the problems so that they recur later, paving the way for chronic illness, perhaps of a seemingly unrelated nature. A recognisable chain might be persistent chills, flu and colds finally resulting in pneumonia. A less obvious one might be constipation as a child and arthritis as an adult.

Western malnutrition is a good description of what a large number of people are suffering from today. Children very often come off worst, becoming overweight and lacking in energy and suffering anything from sinus problems to bad temper, laziness and agression, their lifestyle and food intake all conspiring against them.

Because so many people lack any real understanding of food values, they do not suspect that some of their diet is dangerous, and that the food they eat may be almost totally lacking in vitamins and minerals, which in turn means that the body is less able to assimilate food properly or deal with viruses, infections, etc.

Don't make the mistake of believing that healthy food is too expensive to eat all the time. Actually, fruit and veg should make a huge bulk of what we have to eat on a daily basis. Think of the way old cookery books combine all sorts of natural ingredients in their recipes. Is it any wonder that people suffer from constipation, indisgestion, flatulence and headaches after meals when so many of us have forgotten the food combinations our ancestors used to promote digestion and absorption? These people were natural and instinctive living herbalists!

The Thoughts You Think

The thing that most people do not understand, is that you get to control the way you feel, because you get to choose the thoughts you think.

Most people think that they only have the option of responding to the circumstances that surround them. And that's what makes them attempt the impossible, which only feeds their feeling of frustration and vulnerability, because it doesn't take very much life experience to discover you can't control all of those circumstances.

But you can control your vibration.

And when you control your vibration, you've controlled everything that has anything to do with you.

Trapped negative emotions are the root cause of, or a significant contributing factor, in what goes wrong with your physical body. Including dysfunction, disease and pain. They also contribute to creating dysfunction in your relationships, career, and in many other areas of your life. 

The mechanics of naturally occurring purple eyes are due to pigmentation issues resulting from varied expressions of genes with albinism mutations.

Some people with albinism have purple eyes. Eyes with low levels of pigment appear blue, and in some extreme cases of albinism, eyes appear red.

Purple eyes due to albinism occur when the individual has just enough pigment to straddle between red eyes and blue eyes so that light reflecting off the irises appears violet or purple to observers.

This confluence of genetics is very rare and occurs in less than 1% of the population.

Violet eyes

Deep blue eyes such as Elizabeth Taylor's (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) can appear violet at certain times, "true" violet looking eyes occur only due to albinism. The lack of melanin and the transparency of the layers make the bloodvessels come through.

She was a beautiful Hollywood icon known for her purple eyes. Many people have marveled over her unusual eye colour and wondered whether she did have that colour or if there were extensive efforts to cultivate a perception that her eyes were purple throughout her film career.

It seems the answer is that the appearance of Elizabeth Taylor’s eye colour was cultivated through strategic make-up, clothing, and lighting choices to take advantage of the deep blue in her eyes.

Elizabeth Taylor did have something special about her eyes, though. They were rimmed by dark double eyelashes, caused by a genetic mutation. This mutation resulted in her thick eyelashes, not her distinctive, signature eye colour.

Nastya Kumarova, albino model

Nastya Kumarova, albino model

I shall discuss the anatomy and genetics of normal eye colour and pigmentation of the iris, together with a wide and diverse range of conditions that may produce an alteration in normal iris pigmentation or form. 

The anatomy of iris pigmentation

The iris is near its adult size at birth. The most dynamic changes occur in the first few postnatal years and involve the colour of the iris and the extracellular matrix. Embryologically, the anterior epithelium becomes pigmented while still part of the optic cup; however, the pigmentation of the posterior epithelium (derived from the inner, unpigmented layer of the optic cup) occurs later, proceeding toward the ciliary region, and is completed by 7 months’ of gestation. Postnatal changes in iris color occur by the gradual accumulation of melanin in the stroma and anterior border layer.

The two layers of the neuroepithelium of the optic cup (arrows) become the anterior and posterior IPE, and the iris stroma is derived from neural crest tissue (hematoxylin-eosin, X63).

The two layers of the neuroepithelium of the optic cup (arrows) become the anterior and posterior IPE, and the iris stroma is derived from neural crest tissue (hematoxylin-eosin, X63).

Cross-section of embryonic seven weeks old Orange area is the developing cornea, blue is the lens cavity and green is the posterior lens fibres.

Cross-section of embryonic seven weeks old Orange area is the developing cornea, blue is the lens cavity and green is the posterior lens fibres.

Anatomically the iris is composed of two layers of different embryological origin.

The anterior layer is the iris stroma, which is derived from the mesoderm and consists of a loose collagenous network, which contains the sphincter pupillae muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and cellular elements, including fibroblasts, melanocytes, clump cells, and mast cells.

The anterior border layer is a condensation of connective tissue of the anterior stroma and contains numerous pigment cells. Iris stromal, ciliary body, and choroidal melanocytes are all derived from the neural crest, a transient population of cells, unique to vertebrates. Uveal melanocytes differ from their cutaneous counterparts in one important respect: cutaneous melanocytes ‘inoculate' melanosomes into the surrounding epithelial cells; by contrast, uveal melanocytes remain continent and do not release melanosomes into the surrounding tissues.

The posterior pigment epithelium forms the posterior layer and is neuroectodermal in origin. The posterior pigment epithelium is derived from the anterior portion of the optic cup. It consists of two layers of cuboidal pigment cells, which are tightly joined to each other by numerous intercellular junctions.

It is believed that there are four main factors, which determine iris colour: the pigment granules within the posterior pigment epithelium, the concentration of pigment within the iris stromal melanocytes, the nature of melanin pigment within the iris melanocytes, and the light-scattering and absorption properties of the extracellular stromal matrix.

It is generally considered that the concentration of melanosomes in the posterior pigment epithelium is relatively constant in normal individuals and as a result it has little impact differences in normal eye colour.

The posterior pigment epithelium is only an important determinant of eye colour when it is deficient in normal melanosomes in conditions such as albinism.

The density of the iris stroma is the main determinant of colour in a blue iris.

The blue appearance is a result of backscatter of incident light by stromal collagen fibres. Light of longer wavelength readily penetrates the iris and is absorbed, whereas light with a shorter wavelength is reflected back and scattered by the stromal matrix.

The pigment content of the iris stroma and anterior border layer is responsible for determining all of the shades of iris colour from green to dark brown. Increasing pigment within the iris stroma leads to greater light absorption and the resulting darker eye colour.

While increasing stromal pigment content undoubtedly influences iris colour, some controversy still remains as to whether this is due to an increased number of pigment cells, the density of pigment within the cells (melanosome density in size), or the type of melanin contained within the melanosome.

Although studies by Fuchs and Dietrich supported the notion that the number of melanocytes in the anterior border layer accounted for the differences in iris colour, other studies have concluded that the number of melanocytes within the anterior border layer are relatively constant, irrespective of eye colour. Further studies using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to examine the morphology and quantity of stromal melanocytes have again concluded that the relative numbers of these cells is not a major determinant to iris colour. It would appear based on the electron microscopy of the iris stroma that the number and size of melanosomes contained within melanocytes may have a significant role in determining eye colour. Melanin is an inert biopolymer that exists in two distinct forms: brown-black eumelanin and red-yellow pheomelanin.

Melanocytes have the capacity to produce both forms of melanin; however, the ratio of the two forms can vary widely in individuals, producing different shades of hair and skin colour. In a recent study Prota et al characterised the type of melanin, which occurred in human irides. They concluded that the melanocytes within the posterior pigment epithelium contained essentially eumelanin, whereas those extracted from iris tissue in which the pigment epithelium had been removed by scraping (consisting of mainly stroma and anterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE)) contained both eumelanin and pheomelanin. Furthermore, they noted that pheomelaninic-type pigmentation was associated with green irides, whereas green blue mixed colour irides contained mostly eumelanin.

By contrast, they were unable to categorise green-brown or brown irides into either of the two forms and concluded that they probably contained mixed pigment content.

The final adult iris colour is not present at birth, and in Caucasians the neonatal iris is blue as a result of a paucity of stromal melanocytes, which, presumably, have yet to migrate from the neural crest or differentiate from the primitive precursor cells.

In non-White races the iris appears slate grey at birth. The iris normally adopts its true adult colour by the age of 3–5 months. The genetics of eye colour In the first decade of the 20th century two reports appeared in the literature, which supported the notion that eye colour was inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. Brown eye colour was inherited as a dominant trait and blue eye colour as a recessive one, and, as a result, two blue-eyed parents were incapable of producing children with brown eyes. Although this doctrine was widely taught, it soon became apparent that occasionally blue-eyed parents could produce brown-eyed offspring and that eye colour was not inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. Indeed, recent studies suggest that eye colour is inherited as a polygenic trait, which, as yet, is incompletely understood. 

A number of pigment genes have been implicated in determining eye colour: these include OCA2, TYRP1, MAPT, and MYO5A.10 Of these, the OCA2 gene, which is located in the long arm of chromosome-15 (15q11.2–15q-12) would appear to be the most influential.

Mutation of OCA2 is the underlying cause of oculocutaneous albinism type-II.

Moreover, deletion of the region encompassing this gene on chromosome-15 has been associated with the hypo-pigmentation of hair, skin, and eyes found in the Angelman and Prader–Willi syndromes. Duffy et al have recently reported that a Three-Single-Nucleotide polymorphism haplotype in intron-1 of the OCA2 gene can explain most of the variation in human eye colour.

Congenital anomalies and abnormalities of iris pigmentation Binocular and sectorial heterochromia.

Although, both binocular and sectorial heterochromia are frequently associated with pathological conditions affecting the iris, they may, on occasion, arise as an isolated congenital abnormality.

Sectorial heterochromia (heterochromia iridis) arises when areas of the same iris are different in colour. This condition may be unilateral or bilateral.

Several reports in the early literature suggests that this condition may arise as an autosomal dominant trait. It remains uncertain as to whether any of these early reports were in fact describing patients with Waardenburg syndrome.

Moreover, sectorial heterochromia may be confused with an extensive iris naevus. Recently, bilateral sectorial iris heterochromia has been described in a case of chromosome 13q deletion syndrome. Binocular heterochromia (heterochromia iridum) has been recognised, in both humans and animals, from the very early times and was referred to as ‘heteroglaucos' by Aristotle. Heterochromia iridum has also been reported in association with Sturge–Weber syndrome, hypomelanosis of Ito, and linear scleroderma. Recently, Quinlan and Shwayder reported a case of a large facial café au lait macule in association with heterochromia iridum. The macule was extensive and involved both the upper and the lower eyelids. The patient had one blue and one brown iris. Interestingly, the blue iris was on the same side as the café au lait macule.

Heterochromia has also been described in association with iris colobomas. In a study of 75 children in Scotland with iris colobomas, 13 (17.3%) of these patients were noted to be suffering from iris heterochromia. In cases where the coloboma was unilateral, the affected iris was always darker in colour.

How the Eyes Form in the Embryo

Iridology is based on the study of the iris and its links with the nervous system. The organs of the body are connected by nerves to the spinal cord, which is divided into separate segments, each corresponding to a segment of the body. Impulses from the organs or glands enter the spine via these nerves, and they can be 'read’ in the iris.

The iris is so rich in its structure, markings, colours and variations, that certain identified problem areas could be significant. The knowledge that we have certain weak areas in our body can prove of great benefit to our future health and well being.

The maintenance of health is perhaps the most important aspect of our lives; without health everything else becomes meaningless.

Eyelid formation in the human embryo  at eight weeks of gestation

Eyelid formation in the human embryo at eight weeks of gestation

The major development of the eye takes place between week 3 and week 10 and involves ectoderm, neural crest cells, and mesenchyme. The neural tube ectoderm gives rise to the retina, the iris and ciliary body epithelia, the optic nerve, the smooth muscles of the iris, and some of the vitreous humor. Surface ectoderm gives rise to the lens, the conjunctival and corneal epithelia, the eyelids, and the lacrimal apparatus. The remaining ocular structures form from mesenchyme.

Development of the Iris and Ciliary Body The anterior rim of the optic cup gives rise to the epithelium of the iris and the ciliary body.

Remember that the inner layer of the posterior 4/5 of the optic cup forms the neural retina of the eye. The anterior part of this inner layer forms the non-pigmented layer of the iris and the ciliary process epithelium.

The outer layer of the optic cup in this region contributes the pigmented epithelial layer. A few folds form in the anterior aspect of the optic cup and this forms the ciliary processes. The stroma of the iris and the ciliary body develop from neural crest cells that migrate into the area. Within the stroma of the iris, the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae muscles develop from optic cup neuroectoderm. In contrast, the ciliary muscle, which is responsible for changing the shape of the lens, is derived from overlying mesenchyme.

The colour of the eye is determined by the amount of melanin distributed in the stroma of the iris. Eyes of all colours have melanin in the epithelium on the posterior aspect of the iris.


These invaders are organisms who benefit from nutrition and shelter by living on another organism causing damage to the host. Parasites are the underlying problem of practically every major health problem today. 

Today, probably more so than at any other time in history, chronic and degenerative diseases are virtually epidemic - cancer, Epstein Barr, HIV, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, lupus, and many more. The list continues to grow, but the true cause of most of these problems still isn’t being addressed. During the rapid growth of these conditions the spread of parasites and yeast has also been extensive. More and more is being revealed about the poor water purification and continuos outbreaks of parasitic-related illness. The extensive use of antibiotics has helped spread yeast throughout the population. Most people don’t really have a grip to the severity of these two predators. Many think that only animals have parasites and that yeast is the stuff they put into bread to make it rise. Although we used to believe that parasites were rare except in foreign countries or the tropics, it is now known that parasitic infestation is a major cause of illness in most western countries.

Parasitic disorders aren’t as rare as we would like to think; in fact, the growing number of such disorders is quite alarming. It has been reported that one of six people will test positive for parasites. The reality most people have to live with nowadays.

Parasites can be divided into two categories:

1: worms (round, whip, fluke, hook, tape, thread and pin)

2: protozoa (single-cell animals known as amoeba, giardiasis, toxoplasma, cryptosporidium, etc)

These hidden invaders take up residence in your body. They share your food and release waste into your bloodstream.

What Parasites do to our Bodies

Parasites irritate the tissues of the body, produce harmful toxins, destroy cells in the body faster than cells can be regenerated and depress the immune system. Some parasites penetrate through the skin, others can create an obstruction in the body. People can harbour cysts or larvae for many years. Parasites mimic other diseases, such as arthritis, heart problems and even tumors, and often the health problem is misdiagnosed (if these uninvited guests invade the pancreas, diabetes may become a health problem).

How did we Become Hosts

Parasites can invade our bodies in a number of ways. One way is through contaminated food or water. Another way is through smoother agent. Such a mosquito, a flea, sand fly. Animals and pets are another source since parasite can be passed from organism to organism.

There are some 240 infectious diseases transmitted by animals to humans. These hidden invaders can be spread through direct contact with infected faeces. Man-made ponds and lakes are breeding places for parasites. Parasites can be passed through sexual contact, and some enter the body through the nose and skin. In addition, the overuse of antibiotics and immune suppressing drugs reduces friendly intestinal bacteria and weakens the body’s defences against these hidden invaders.

Symptoms Parasites Produce

Parasitic symptoms are many and varied, some of which are:

Sugar and/or alcohol cravings

Teeth grinding

Chronic cough

Gas and bloating

Irritable bowel syndrome

Joint and muscle aches and pains


Poor nail quality (weak, brittle, white specs)

Cracks around mucous membrane  like the nose (ears, eyes, rectum, vagina)

Allergies, Skin conditions (rashes and itching)

Itchy around anus

Abdominal pain

Nervousness (toxic waste can intensify the nervous system)

Sleep disorders (insomnia, as parasites are in full swing at midnight)

Feelings of something crawling under the skin

Chronic fatigue/extreme tiredness

Reoccurring sores and rashes

Nausea & Flu symptoms

Deficient Immune System

Diarrhea and even Constipation.

Parasites living in the upper small intestine can cause gas and bloating. Parasites secrete toxic metabolic waste, can irritate the intestinal wall, causing bowel cramps, gallbladder pain, fevers, and even Chron’s disease (parasites in the middle lining of the intestine).

Parasites and the toxins they produce can cause allergy symptoms. Skin reactions, such as hives, rashes, eczema, ringworm, jock itch and athlete’s foot can be caused by parasites.

Wastes and toxic substances from parasites can irritate the nervous system, causing hyperactivity, attention deficit, memory problems and panic attacks.

Teeth grinding and thrashing in bed are common symptoms of parasitic activity, especially in children. Parasites can become enclosed in a sac in joint fluids and worms can harbour in the muscles, causing rheumatoid and arthritic symptoms, even fibromyalgia (parasites in the muscles). Chronic fatigue symptoms can be the result of parasitic activity in the body.

The end result of parasitic activity is a depressed immune system.

How We Rid the Body of Parasites

First, since the immune system is now deficient from parasitic activity, the immune system should be supported through natural supplementation. Some suggested natural immune system builders might be: ginseng, kelp, sumatriptans combination, Pau d'arco, cat’s claw or Essiac tea.

Second, an effective natural parasite elimination program should be undertaken: Black walnut, herbal pumpkin, garlic, elecampane, mugwort, and wormwood have been used successfully for parasite elimination. It is essential to keep the bowels moving during a parasite elimination program. Cascara Sagrada could be added to the elimination program.

Last, it is wise to create an environment in the body in which parasites cannot live. This can be done as follows:

Keep the balance of friendly bacteria in the intestinal tract at 80% lactobacillus acidophilus and 20% the unfriendly bacteria.

The diet should be modified. Parasites thrive on sweets and simple carbohydrates, including fruit juices. Refined sugar should be eliminated from the diet. Reduce dairy product intake in the diet. Eat unprocessed, high fibre foods.

Further, parasites cannot normally survive if the stomach has adequate hydrochloric acid. As we age, production of hydrochloric acid decreases. Enzyme supplementation may also be beneficial as well as supplement the body with natural minerals such as alfalfa or kelp.

Once the parasite elimination program has been completed, steps should be taken to prevent parasite infestation as follows:

Maintain adequate hydrochloric acid, enzyme, mineral and acidophilus levels in the body. Maintain a diet low in sugar and dairy products. Eat high fibre foods such as grains, beans, vegetables. Avoid water from streams and rivers, as well as raw beef or raw fish. Avoid antibiotics and cortisone/steroid-type drugs. Make sure you are eliminating regularly. Use good hygiene and wash your hands often.

These uninvited guests are the silent epidemic in today's world.

Trapped negative emotions are the root cause of, or a significant contributing factor, in what goes wrong with your physical body.

Including dysfunction, disease and pain.

They also contribute to creating dysfunction in your relationships, career, and in many other areas of your life.

There are ways that you can improve your emotional health:

1- try to recognise your emotions and understand why you are having them. Honour your emotions and let them flow.

Sorting out the causes of sadness, stress, and anxiety in your life can help you manage your emotional health. Focus on the things that you are grateful for in your life. Try not to obsess about the problems at work, school, or home that lead to negative feelings. This doesn’t mean you have to pretend to be happy when you feel stressed, anxious, or upset. It’s important to deal with these negative feelings, but try to focus on the positive things in your life, too. 

2- try resilience. People with resilience are able to cope with stress in a healthy way. Resilience can be learned and strengthened with different strategies. These include having social support, keeping a positive view of yourself.

You should have 3 places to thrive:

Home, work and another place where you can practice a sport or attend a class or hobby. This last place usually brings happiness and if visited regularly, it makes a huge difference. 

Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, etc are useful ways to bring your emotions into balance.

To have good emotional health, it’s important to take care of your body by having a regular routine for eating healthy meals, getting enough sleep, and exercising to relieve tension. Poor emotional health can weaken your body’s immune system. 

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